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Monday, June 26, 2017

Conditions in the Virginia Colony Under King James I #virginiapioneersnet #genealogy


The Conditions in the Colony Under King James I

growing tobacco in the streetsIn History of Virginia by Arthur and Carpenter, the need to plant tobacco was discussed. "The first articles of commerce to the production of which the early settlers almost exclusively devoted themselves, were potash, soap, glass and tar." After the costly experiments in the cultivation of the vine, the growing demand for tobacco enabled planters to turn their labor into a profit. Meanwhile, "The houses were neglected, the palisades suffered to rot down, the fields, gardens and public squares, even the very streets of Jamestown were planted with tobacco. The townspeople, more greedy of gain than mindful of their own security, scattered abroad into the wilderness, where they broke up small pieces of rich ground and made their crop regardless of their proximity to the Indians, in whose good faith so little reliance could be placed." In 1626, Charles I had established himself as a tobacco merchant and monopolist, issued a proclamation renewing his strong monopoly and appointing certain officers in London to seize all foreign tobacco not grown in Virginia or in the Bermudas, for his own benefit and also to purchase all of the tobacco coming from said plantations for resell. Profits were going so well for His Majesty, that in 1630 and 1634 he issued proclamations prohibiting the landing of tobacco anywhere except at the quay near the Custom House of London. The laws surrounding his monopoly ultimately diminished trade and ruined the Virginia Company altogether. 
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Only One of Three Vessels Reaches Charleston in 1669 #southcarolinapioneersnet

The Ship "Carolina" Survives Hurricanes and Reaches Charleston in 1669

Map of Ashley and Cooper RiversIn 1669 the Lords Proprietaries sent out from England three ships, the Carolina, the Port Royal, and the Albemarle, with about a hundred colonists aboard. They sailed the old sea road which took them first to Barbados. At was at Barbados that the Albemarle was caught in a storm, and wrecked. But there was more trouble ahead. As the other two ships, with a Barbados sloop, sailed on anal approached the Bahamas, the Port Royal was destroyed by another hurricane. The Carolina, however, pushed on with the sloop, reached Bermuda, and rested there. Then, with a small ship purchased in these islands, she turned west by south and came in March of 1670 to the good harbor of Port Royal, South Carolina. Southward, the Spaniards held old Florida where the town of St. Augustine had flourished since the 16th century. From this vantage, the Spanish could easily descend upon the English newcomers. The colonists debated the situation and decided to set some further space between them and lands of Spain. So the ships put out again to sea, beating northward a few leagues until it entered a harbor into which emptied two rivers, the Ashley and the Cooper. After going up the Ashley they were able to anchor and the colonists went ashore. On the west bank of the river, they began to build a town which for the King they named Charles Town. Ten years later this place was abandoned in favor of the more convenient point of land between the two rivers. Colonists came fast to this Carolina lying south. Barbados sent many; England, Scotland, and Ireland contributed a share; there came Huguenots from France, and a certain number of Germans. Ten years later the population numbered twelve hundred, and continued to increase. The early times were taken up with the wrestle with the forest, with the Indians, with Spanish alarms, with incompetent governors, with the Lords Proprietaries' Fundamental Constitutions, and with the restrictions which English Navigation Laws imposed upon English colonies. What grains and vegetables and tobacco they could grow, what cattle and swine they could breed and export, preoccupied the minds of these pioneer farmers. There were struggling for growth a rough agriculture and a hampered trade with Barbados, Virginia, and New England trade likewise with the buccaneers who swarmed in the West Indian waters. Free bootery was allowed to flourish in American seas. Gross governmental faults, Navigation Acts, and a hundred petty and great oppressions, general poverty, adventurousness, lawlessness, and sympathy of mishandled folk with lawlessness, all combined to keep Brother of the Coast, Buccaneer, and Filibuster alive, and their ships upon all seas. Many were no worse than smugglers; others were robbers with violence; and a few had a dash of the fiend. All nations had buccaneers on the seas and the early settlers on these shores never violently disapproved of the pirate. He was often a "good fellow" who delivered needed articles without dues, easy to trade with, and had Spanish gold in his pouch. Pirates frequently came ashore to Charles Town, and they traded with him there. For this reason, at one time Charles Town got the name of "Rogue's Harbor." However, as better emigrants arrived and planted tobacco and wheat along the Ashley and Cooper rivers, the tone changed. But it was not until the final years of the seventeenth century that a ship touching at Charleston left there a bag of Madagascar rice. Planted, it gave increase that was planted again. Suddenly it was found that this was the crop for low-lying Carolina. Rice became her staple, as was tobacco of Virginia. For the rice fields and system of large plantations, an aristocratic structure embraced Charles Town. To escape heat and sickness, the planters of rice and indigo gave over to employees the care of their great holdings and lived themselves in pleasant Charleston. These plantations, with their great gangs of slaves under overseers, also had the indentured white laborers whose passage was paid for by English, who were promised fair freedom after a certain number of years. While the caste system was predominantly strong in England, the charters for the colonies provided an overplus power to grant liberty of conscience, although at home was a hot persecuting time. Thus, Huguenots, Independents, Quakers, dissenters of many kinds, found on the whole refuge and harbor in the colonies. Moreso than any of the other colonies, South Carolina had great plantations, a bustling town society, suave and polished, a learned clergy, an aristocratic cast to life. A place where the sea-line offered access to stretches of rivers to all vessels. 

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Sunday, June 25, 2017

Ships Transporting Women to Marry to Virginia Colony #virginiapioneersnet #genealogy

Ships Transporting Wives

Twelve women were sent in the Marmaduke and fifty in the ship and pinnace called Tyger.The London Company detailed in their records that it was their intent to providing their first landing and to dispose of them in marriage. The passage was 12 pounds sterling and 150 pounds of the best leaf tobacco for each. Should any one or more of them die, then the proportional addition was to be paid by the rest. They were to be delivered to Mr. Ed who was to keep an accounting. "This and theire owne good deserts together with your favor and care, will we hope, marry any of them shall unwarily or fondly bestow (for the liberty of marriage we dare not infringe) upon such as shall not be able to give present satisfaction, we desire that at least as soon as ability shall be, they be compelled to pay the true quantity of tobacco proportioned, and that this debt may have precidence of all other to be recovered." All this possible because in 1622 a monopoly for the importation of tobacco was granted to the Virginia Company and Somers Island Company. Source: The London Company on Buying Wives. 

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Saturday, June 24, 2017

Settlers to Jamestown Purchased Wives! #virginiapioneersnet #genealogy


Settlers to Jamestown Purchased Wives 

Buying WivesBecause of the hardships endured in the early settlement of James Town, one of the things permitted by the London Company was the purchasing of wives. In tracing these families, I have discovered a number of persons, before and after the 1622 massacre particularly, who returned to London to acquire a wife. First, disease and rat poison from the vessels caused a rank loss of life and the later massacre, of course, killed off a number of families. The London Company investors added this provision to their charter. Nearly 400 persons were lain in the colony on March 22, 1622. 

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Friday, June 23, 2017

The Fabulous Story of Hugh McDonald #northcarolinapioneers #genealogy

The Fabulous Story of Hugh McDonald
By Jeannette Holland Austin 
Jeannette Holland Austin
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Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge
Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge: A short while before the American Revolution, a vessel left Isle of Skye Scotland and dropped anchor outside of Wilmington, North Carolina. It was loaded with the MacDonald Clan; and particularly Flora MacDonald, a supporter of Bonnie Prince Charles (Stuart pretender to the throne). They sent a message to the Governor of the State asking for acreage upon with to settle the clan and waited to be granted several thousand acres in Moore County. 

At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the Scots sided with Great Britain in the cause. One morning, the young Hugh McDonald, aged 16 years, while working alongside his father in the family field, saw a company of American patriots approaching on horseback. Not wanting to join the cause, the father ran into the woods to hide and while he was gone the patriots persuaded young Hugh to join up as a drummer boy. Shortly thereafter, the boy fought in the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, a minor but important victory for the patriots. For the next several years Hugh fought in all of the skirmishes and battles of his regiment which eventually led to the surrender at Yorktown of Cornwallis. In his pension, Hugh tells of a battle when he took a musket ball in the leg and fell to the ground. A British soldier, standing over him, sword in hand, prepared to kill him when suddenly he changed his mind and ran into the woods. That wounded leg would trouble Hugh all of his life. After the war, the MacDonald clan, having chosen the wrong side of the conflict, was compelled to return to Scotland. Meanwhile Hugh was entitled to a land grant for his service. The land was in Elbert County, and that is how the family set their roots in Georgia. 

There are many such stories to be discovered in the records. Just about everybody descends from a brave soldier of the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, or the American Civil War. We read of the founders of this country and other heroes, yet we, too, have family members who risked everything to come to America, and take upon themselves the battle for freedom. Yet, in this age, young people are rioting in the streets, demanding, demanding, demanding. I wonder if they realize the sufferings of their own ancestors or have heard a story of their past? If so, then I expect that, instead of destroying property, they would want to help America now in its troubling times. For, it is during this era that we stand to lose our Constitutional freedoms and very life to domestic and foreign terrorists. Hugh had the right to bear arms, to save himself from invading armies, and his children served in local militias carrying weapons to further protect the countryside. So that has been the way of it from America's earliest times. One of of most precious freedoms, the right to keep and bear arms was described by Aristotle, Cicero, John | Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs, and others. This heritage is our right as are the freedoms for which Hugh McDonald fought so long ago. 

Now, in the wake of terrorist attacks upon Paris, we are at a threshold of decision. Sit on our laurels and let Islam capture America, or fight. Veterans speak of World War II as "the big one". However, larger, more terrifying battles knock at our doors, and promise many long years of struggle. It is one which the spoiled children of the soldiers of the American Revolution and other wars do not understand. For they have been safe all these years. How can the mothers and fathers of these children change their hearts? If they knew their background, who they really are , they would begin to understand and appreciate so strong a love for our America. We can no longer depend upon the schools to teach a true history. Instead, the schools trash Thomas Jefferson, James | Madison, George Washington, and even Columbus (1492). Toykio Rose of World War II is back, propagandizing, persuading the children to forget the founding fathers. To help us discover our roots, many genealogical records are being published online. It is joyful to piece together (from actual facts) the endearing stories of the past. 

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Thursday, June 22, 2017

Try Researching the North Carolina State Papers for Ancestors #northcarolinapioneers #genealogy


Try the North Carolina State Papers
By Jeannette Holland AustinJeannette Holland Austin

All passengers lists have not been published in books. Actually there are only a handful of such publications and there yet remains much of this type of work to be published. The National Archives is the place to search for passenger lists and ship manifests (which lists the passengers, there ages and port of origin). Examining these records is a tedious job, but remember that the manifests were frequently given over to the port authorities months after the arrival date. Another place to obtain arrival information is in State Papers. Example, the North Carolina State Papers contains petitions from various vessels loaded with Scots and Irish persons seeking refuge and land in America. One particular instance before the American Revolution included a vessel loaded with the McDonalds and other clans from the Isle of Skye who had been politically aligned with the Stuarts. They were seeking refuge from British persecution. The petition itself in addition to listing many of the passengers explains the date these clans settled and the large tracts of land they received in Moore County, North Carolina. This is the sort of information we want, isn't it? The historical events and brave struggles of our families.
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Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Legend of Old Quork's Point #northcarolinapioneers #ncgenealogy


The Legend of Old Quork's Point
By Jeannette Holland Austin

Old Quork's Day"Old Quork" was the name of a man, a castaway who had washed on Ocracoke Island. He was the survivor of a shipwreck and afterwards elected to remain on the island among the courageous people who helped him to survive. The skin of "Old Quork" was a light gold color, seemingly of Arabian origin, and his native tongue pronounced his name in such a manner that it was said to mimic the croaker fish. But that was not all. "Old Quork" was known to possess strange and outlandish habits and mannerisms. He was a quick learner of the skills of the fisherman and soon owned his own boat. The boat was as old as the 94-year old fisherman who sold it to him. Quork could cast a net without attracting sharks. On the morning of February 6, 1788, one month after Christmas was celebrated in the village of Rodanthe on Hatteras Island, Quork put out his fishing boat from a point of land near Ocracoke Village. His nets were neatly folded in the stern of his boat and his sails were spread to the freshening wind despite the fact that the old-timers predicted a full gale before the next high tide. He sailed alone and it was not long before his little boat disappeared over the horizon. The weather worsened and the islanders worried. When his boat was spied heading for shore, she seemed low in the water. Quork sped through the inlet and Pamlico Sound and tied up to the dock. Now, the trim of the boat was apparent as it was loaded to the gunwalkes with good, marketable fish. His neighbors helped him to unload his catch. By now the wind had quickened into a half-gale and the breakers were growing larger. The fisherman congratulated themselves upon getting the boat unloaded before the Sound became too rough to work. But, to their surprise, Quork refolded his nets and refilled his drinking-water jugs to prepare a return to the sea. They tried to persuade him that it was foolhardy to risk a return to the sea, but the wild light in his eyes revealed his stubborn determination. They warned him that he would be "flying in the face of the Almighty Himself." Aghast, his neighbors watched as he successfully traversed the inlet and reached the open sea. Some say that just before he sailed out of sight, a lone figure in the driving rain and spume, they heard a high, mocking laugh. "Old Quork" was never seen again! There is highway sign as you approach Ocracoke Village which marks the very point from which he is said to have sailed. This is the meaning of "Old Quork's Day."

Source: Legends of the Outer Banks by Charles Harry Whedbee (1966).
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